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Artificial Intelligence (AI)

What is Artifical Intelligence?

From self-driving cars and facial recognition software to the algorithms driving everyday online commerce, artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the vast network of computer programs that are capable of learning to make decisions, reason about data, and communicate with humans.

Artificial Intelligence. (n.d.). | Rafik Hariri Institute for Computing and Computational Science & Engineering. Retrieved March 31, 2023, from https://www.bu.edu/hic/research/artificial-intelligence/

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Before using ChatGPT for personal use, ask:

  1. What value can ChatGPT provide to graduate students who are either school of medicine, school of dentistry, or school of public health students?

  2. How can I write an optimal prompt to get a detailed and accurate response from ChatGPT?

  3. After a user gives a prompt to ChatGPT and receives an answer, what should their next steps be to verify the information provided?

  4. What are the current flaws of ChatGPT version 4?

ChatGPT. (2023, April 3). How would you explain ChatGPT to someone who has never heard of it? [Conversation with a user].

ChatGPT can create "Hallucinations" which are mistakes in the generated text that are semantically or syntactically plausible but are in fact incorrect or nonsensical (Smith 2023). These problems continue in 2024.

View a real-life example of a ChatGPT generated hallucination here. 

Smith, C. S. (2023, March 13). Hallucinations Could Blunt ChatGPT’s Success. IEEE Spectrum. https://spectrum.ieee.org/ai-hallucination

Example of a Citation Hallucination

 

Step 1: ChatGPT was given the prompt, "Can you give me 10 journal articles on treatments for periodontitis in the style of the APA 7th edition citation format?" The first article provided by ChatGPT was:

  1.  Sanz, M., Herrera, D., & Kebschull, M. (2015). Challenging the efficacy of periodontal surgery. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 42(6), 513-516. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12406

Step 2: A librarian fact-checked the provided citation. This is the breakdown of what was found:

  • Sanz, M., Herrera, D., & Kebschull, M. (2015). Challenging the efficacy of periodontal surgery. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 42(6), 513-516. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12406
    • Sanz, M., Herrera, D., & Kebschull, M authored a different article together: D Herrera, M Kebschull, M Sanz (2022). Actualización de las revisiones sistemáticas. International journal of interdisciplinary dentistry 15(SPC), 115-119.
    • 2015 is accurate, in terms of the journal, volume, issue, and page #'s
    • The article titled "Challenging the efficacy of periodontal surgery" does not exist
    • Volume 42, Issue 6 of the Journal of Clinical Periodontology has the article, "Variables affecting tooth survival and changes in probing depth: a long-term follow-up of periodontitis patients" on pages 513-516
    • The DOI links to a different article, "Human intrabony defect regeneration with rhFGF-2 and hyaluronic acid – A randomized controlled clinical trial"

Step 3: The librarian told  ChatGPT that the citation it provided doesn't exist, ChatGPT then gave the "correct" citation for the article as:

  • Sanz, M., Herrera, D., & Kebschull, M. (2015). Challenging the efficacy of periodontal surgery. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 42(Suppl 16), S187-S201. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12406

Step 4: The librarian once again fact-checked the answer. When looking up Volume 42, Supplement 16 in the Journal of Clinical Periodontology, the actual citation on pages S187-S201 was:

  • Salvi, G. E., & Ramseier, C. A. (2015). Efficacy of patient-administered mechanical and/or chemical plaque control protocols in the management of peri-implant mucositis. A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 42(S16), S187–S201. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12321

Step 5: ChatGPT was provided with the correct citation. It then generated another 10 articles based on the original prompt. The first article provided was again incorrect.

  • Generated ChatGPT citation:

    • Chapple, I. L. C., Mealey, B. L., Van Dyke, T. E., Bartold, P. M., Dommisch, H., Eickholz, P., ... & Kinane, D. F. (2018). Periodontal health and gingival diseases and conditions on an intact and a reduced periodontium: Consensus report of workgroup 1 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. Journal of clinical periodontology, 45(Suppl 20), S68-S77. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12935

  • The actual citation located at that DOI: 

    • Salvi, G. E., & Ramseier, C. A. (2015). Efficacy of patient-administered mechanical and/or chemical plaque control protocols in the management of peri-implant mucositis. A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 42(S16), S187–S201. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12321

Note: This prompt was created in March 2023.

Artificial Intelligence (AI tools) are a newer technology and the professional, educational, and research use of these tools have not been fully investigated. The lack of a professional consensus can lead to conflicts in matters of academic integrity, intellectual property, proper attribution, and other related areas. The library does not endorse these tools or their misuse. This subject guide is for educational purposes only.